- Protects against
- combustion acids
- Keeps contaminants / soot in oil
- Hydraulic fluid for injectors etc.
Basic Engine Oil Knowledge
- Engine oil: engine's lifeblood
- Engines and engine oil
- Functions of engine oil
- How gasoline engine works
- Why new generation engine oils?
- Causes of engine failures
- Why engine oil must be changed?
- Symptoms of engine oil deterioration
- Points to choose engine oil
- How to read SAE viscosity notation
- Basics of transmission
- Basics of ATF and CVTF
- Why ATF and CVTF must be changed?
Engine oil: engine's lifeblood
Complex task in many different environments?
Engines and engine oil
The engine is composed of following parts through which the engine oil flows.
- If engine is a heart, the engine oil is its blood.
- Oil circulates in the engine and performs various functions.
Functions of engine oil
- Engine oil is necessary to maintain engine and enable it to function
How gasoline engine works
- Gasoline engine produces power by repeat combustion of air-fuel mixture.
- The air-fuel mixture is ignited by a spark at the spark plug.
Why new generation engine oils?
Significant changes in engines: stresses oil
- engine power
- oil drain intervals
- sump temperatures
- sump size
- lower oil consumption
And finally biggest factor....
- engine designs to meet low emission standards
Causes of engine failures
- Improper maintenance
- Incorrect oil used
- Failure to change contaminated oils
- Sludge deposits
- Build-up of varnish
- Oxidation & thickening of oil
- Abrasive elements
- Additive depletion
- Oil pump failure
Why engine oil must be changed?
Engine oil deteriorates for the following reasons:
- Dirt accumulation
- Moisture contamination
- Fuel Contamination
- Thermal oxidation of the oil
- Consumption of additives
- Temperature of combustion gases in engine reaches 2000 to 3000℃.
- In such a severe environment, it is evident that engine oil will deteriorate
Symptoms of engine oil deterioration
- Dirt builds up in engine
- Engine is not protected
- Reduced fuel economy
- Reduced performance
- Reduced engine life
- Engine breakdown
- The deterioration of engine oil causes engine trouble.
- Engine Oil must be changed periodically to keep engine in best condition
Points to choose engine oil
The quality and viscosity of the engine oil are specified by international standards. By noting these, the appropriate engine oil can be chosen.
SAE viscosity notation
Sample SAE viscosity notation
Grade notations (API, ILSAC, ACEA)
Sample grade notations
Sample certification marks
How to read SAE viscosity notation
The viscosity of the engine oil is expressed numerically using the SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) developed notation.
- “W” stands for “Winter”.
Basics of transmission
What is a Transmission?
The transmission transmits power from the engine and changes the rotation direction as well as increasing or decreasing engine torque and engine speed. It consists of a large number of rotating and sliding parts for which lubricant is used.
Basics of ATF and CVTF
Transmissions and Lubricants
There are mainly 3 different types of transmissions: Automatic Transmissions (AT), Continuously Variable Transmissions (CVT) and Manual Transmissions (MT).
Each type has its own lubricant performance requirements.
Required Performance for ATF and CVTF
The following are the performance requirements for ATF and CVTF.
- Lubrication properties
- Viscosity / temperature characteristics
- Cooling characteristics
- Materials compatibility
- Wet clutch friction characteristics
Metal to metal friction characteristics
- ATF and CVTF must be used correctly as they each meet different performance requirements.
Why ATF and CVTF must be changed?
Deterioration of ATF and CVTF
The following are causes of ATF and CVTF deterioration:
- Oxidation caused by the heat from driving
- Consumption and breakdown of additives
- Accumulation of moisture, metal wear particles and sludge
Symptoms Caused by Deterioration
The following symptoms will occur if the ATF or CVTF deteriorates.
- Reduced acceleration
- Reduced fuel efficiency
- Increased shift shock
- ATF and CVTF need regular replacement to keep them in the best condition.